What are the 9 Branches of Natural Science?

Natural science is the study of the material world and how it behaves. It is an empirical science that tries to understand the natural world by studying what we can observe in it. This article is about natural sciences and the 9 branches that are included.

What are the 9 Branches of Natural Science?

In the natural sciences, the following branches can be distinguished:

  • Microbiology
  • Ecology
  • Biology
  • Physics
  • Genetics 
  • Mechanics
  • Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Astronomy

What is Natural Science?

The natural sciences are empirical sciences that study nature. They are not social or humanities disciplines such as history and philosophy. 

The term “natural science” is sometimes used interchangeably with “physical science”. However, in modern times the latter term has come to refer to a more narrow set of disciplines that focus on explaining the physical world through mathematical and quantitative means.

Natural sciences are a range of scientific fields that study natural phenomena since it is the study of nature and the natural world. They are typically classified as either physical or life sciences.

Physical sciences focus on objects and matter’s properties, structures, and changes. This includes the Earth, its atmosphere, oceans, plants, and animals, as well as outer space.

Life sciences include fields such as botany (the study of plants), zoology (the study of animals), and microbiology (the study of microorganisms).


Microbiology is the study of microorganisms or tiny organisms. These organisms are too small to be seen with the naked eye and can only be observed using microscopes. 

There are many fields within the study of microbiology, and these different branches all explore unique aspects of microorganisms and they’re important in this growing field. 

As microbiologists learn more about the world around them, they also increase the potential for creating dangerous new pathogens or triggering deadly pandemics. 

Viruses like Ebola and Zika gained traction in the media because they can kill humans, but bacteria like E. coli also pose a significant threat to human health. Even organisms that are beneficial to us, like probiotics, can still cause harm in the wrong circumstances. This is why microbiologists often find themselves working in regulated or even classified environments.


Ecology is the study of living organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. Ecological studies look at living things in their natural environment to find out more about them. 

Ecology is a biology discipline that deals with the distribution, abundance, and interactions among organisms in relation to their environment.

Ecology has been an important field of research since the late 18th century when scientists first began to realize that there were laws governing the relationships between living organisms.


Biology is the study of all living things in general. It focuses on the life of various living things. It includes all living organisms, from viruses to plants to animals to humans. It also investigates living organisms in all their complexity. 

Biology came from the Greek word bios meaning life and logos meaning study. In short, biology is the study of life, its vital processes, and every physicochemical aspect of it.

Biology is a natural science discipline with a broad scope but has a singular theme that makes it all coherent and that is life in all forms, shapes, and sizes living together in different environments with different functions and needs.


Physics is the science of energy and matter. This branch of natural science studies matter and energy in motion, which includes topics like space, time, force, light, electricity, and magnetism. 

Physics also looks at the properties of matter and energy in order to understand how they interact with one another. Physics is one of the main branches of natural science. 

Key inventions and discoveries like resonance imaging and nuclear energy, quantum phenomenon, and Newton’s law of motion had changed the way we perceive our natural universe.


Genetics is a field that studies heredity by using a combination of methods including experiments to determine how traits are passed from one generation to another affecting their appearance or behavior. 

Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and the variation of traits in living organisms. It is a natural science that studies how heritable traits are transmitted from parent to offspring.

Genes are strands of DNA that contain instructions for what an organism looks like and how it behaves. The information in a gene can be passed down from parents to offspring during reproduction.

The way genes are passed down is called heredity. There are many different types of heritable traits that can be passed on through genetic information, including appearance, health, and behaviors.


Mechanics is the study of the motion of bodies under the action of forces. It includes the application of physics to the study of motion, force, energy, and work as well as the study of the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion. 

Topics such as acoustics (the science dealing with sound), fluid mechanics (the study of liquids), solid mechanics (the branch of physics concerned with solids), thermodynamics (a branch that deals with heat), etc. are also included.


Chemistry is a branch of natural science concerned with substances such as metals that exist in different forms called alloys. In chemistry, the composition of a substance is the relative percentage or ratio of atoms that constitute it. 

The properties and behavior of matter depend on its composition. The word “chemistry” originates from an ancient Greek word meaning “earth study.” Chemists study the composition, properties, and behavior of substances including elements and molecules.


Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes in living organisms. It is a laboratory-based science that studies molecular-level processes, plants, animals, and microbes.

Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry also known as biological chemistry. Biochemists are interested in how these chemical reactions work together to create life and how they can be manipulated for various purposes. 

Biochemistry is also concerned with the application of this knowledge to other fields like medicine or agriculture. Biochemists study how these chemicals influence life and how they affect one another. 

The word “biochemistry” comes from two Greek words: “bio” meaning “life” and “-chemistry” meaning “chemistry.” Biochemical research has led to many medical breakthroughs such as antibiotics, vaccines, painkillers, cancer treatments, heart medications, and more.

The history of biochemistry can be traced back to 18th century France when Antoine Lavoisier discovered that oxygen was a part of atmospheric air. 

He also discovered that when he burned a candle in an enclosed jar, the candle would burn up faster than if it were open to the air. This led him to believe that there must be something in the air that was feeding on the candle wax and making it burn up faster. 

He called this element “oxygen” which means “acid former” because he believed it was an acid, but we now know that oxygen is not acidic at all


The word astronomy is derived from the Greek words “Astron” (meaning “star”) and “nomos” (meaning “law”). Astronomy is the science of exploring the universe beyond Earth’s atmosphere.

The history of astronomy starts with a few, simple observations about what was happening in the sky. The first recorded observation of a celestial object was made by the ancient Babylonian astronomers more than 4,000 years ago. 

They noticed that Venus always followed a path in front of the Sun and so they inferred that it must be orbiting our star. Astronomy has been used to help people understand their place in space and time, as well as their place in relation to other living things on Earth. 


The 9 branches of natural science are microbiology, ecology, biology, physics, genetics, mechanics, chemistry, biochemistry, and astronomy. These sciences study the world around us to understand how it works and why.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): what are the 9 branches of natural science?

How many branches of science are there?

There are three main branches of science: natural science, earth science, and social science. Each of the three branches of science has its own career applications.

Who is the father of science?

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Galileo Galilei, born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy, is considered the “father of modern science.”

What does natural science teach us?

Natural science teaches us all the things we need to know about the world around us and its physical existence.


Toulmin, S. E. (1967). The evolutionary development of natural science. American Scientist, 55(4), 456-471.

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