What are the 8 branches of Philosophy?

Philosophy, like other fields, has its own history. It has its own branches, or schools of thought, and its own methods of teaching. These schools of thought can be broken down into four main branches. This article answers the question “What are the 8 branches of Philosophy?”.

What are the 8 branches of Philosophy?

These are the 8 branches of philosophy:

  • Metaphysics
  • Epistemology
  • Ethics
  • Logic
  • Aesthetics
  • Axiology
  • Theology
  • Political Philosophy

What is philosophy?

Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom and understanding. It is the study of the origins of knowledge, the fundamental nature of reality, and the human condition, reality, knowledge, values, and existence. 

Philosophy is concerned with explaining the nature of being, thought, and action, and it has a wide range of topics addressed by different schools of thought. Philosophy can be applied to all subjects, but it is mainly concerned with the nature of knowledge, truth, morality, and beauty.

What is Metaphysics?

Metaphysics is one of the earliest branches of philosophy that studies the central nature of the real world, the main standards of being, personality and change, existence, causality, need, and probability.

Metaphysics, which implies in a real sense what’s next after physics, was utilized to allude to the composition by Aristotle of what he himself called the first philosophy. 

It is a branch of philosophy that concentrates on the constitution and extreme construction of the real world, particularly of that which is genuine, to the extent that it is real. 

Throughout the entire existence of the Western way of thinking, metaphysics has been grasped in different manners. Whether as the investigation of the real world, rather than appearance, or as the investigation of the world all in all, as a hypothesis of first standards, and lastly as the psychological and the actual investigation into what fundamental classifications of things there are. 

A few fundamental issues throughout the entire existence of metaphysics are the issue of the universe like the presence of God;  the mind-body problem; the issue of the idea of universals and their connection to supposed specifics; and the issue of the idea of the material, or outer, objects.

The main categories of the metaphysical theory are the following:

  • Platonism
  • Aristotelianism
  • Thomism
  • Cartesianism
  • Dualism
  • Idealism
  • Realism
  • Materialism

What is Epistemology?

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with the theory of knowledge. This branch of philosophy is important because it helps determine the nature of knowledge and how it is obtained. There are four main branches of epistemology and these are the following:

  • Epistemology of Quality
  • Epistemology of Truth
  • Epistemology of Belief
  • Epistemology of Experience

Epistemology of Quality is the branch of epistemology that is focused on the way knowledge is obtained. It is about how we come to know about the world around us. The main focus of this branch of philosophy is on the idea that knowledge is gained through personal experience and intuition.

Epistemology of Truth is the branch of epistemology that is focused on the nature of knowledge. The main focus of this branch of philosophy is on the idea that knowledge is gained through reason and logic. 

Epistemology of Belief is the branch of epistemology that is focused on the nature of knowledge. The main focus of this branch of philosophy is on the idea that knowledge is gained through faith and religion.

Epistemology of Experience is the branch of epistemology that is focused on all our empirical knowledge belonging to one’s experience which cannot be added any value to an end product of thought.

What is Ethics?

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that focuses on moral thoughts, for example, right and wrong or good and bad, and tries to decide its right utilization and different speculations of the nature or use of such ideas.

Ethics is generally divided into the following:

  • Normative ethics
  • Metaethics
  • Applied ethics

Normative ethics seeks to establish whether actions are to be passed judgment on right or wrong in light of their adjustment to some ethical rule, such as Do not run around naked or in view of their consequences. These guidelines or standards are all very essential inquiries in this field 

The adaptation of the previous premise of judgment is known as consequentialist theories and those theories that adjust to the last option are called deontological.

Metaethics is concerned with the theories and decisions of the idea of morals. Much work in metaethics has focused on the sensible and semantic parts of moral language starting from the start of the twentieth century. 

Some major metaethical theories are the following:

  • Emotivism 
  • Prescriptivism 
  • Naturalism 
  • Intuitionism 

As the name suggests, Applied ethics is concerned with how standardizing moral speculations can be applied to viable moral issues like willful extermination or euthanasia. 

Significant fields of applied ethics are the following:

  • Legal ethic
  • Medical ethics
  • Bioethics 
  • Business ethics

What is Logic?

Logic is the branch of philosophy that studies the principles of correct reasoning. The range of faculties this study has may propose the challenges to be experienced in portraying the nature and extent of rationale. 

The term Logic comes from the Greek word logos. Among the many interpretations of logos, there are the following:

  • Reason
  • Rule
  • Ratio
  • Sentence
  • Discourse
  • Account
  • Principle
  • Rational definition

Much the same as this expansion of implications, the topic of rationale has been supposed to be the utilization of specific words marked as intelligent constants, truths dependent exclusively upon the implications of the terms they contain, laws of thought, the guidelines of right thinking, the standards of substantial argumentation, etc.

Logic may in this way be described as the investigation of the implications of the terms and their substance on which truths are completely based.

What is Aesthetics?

Aesthetics is the study of beauty, and it is a major branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, nature, and the mind. It is concerned with the creation or appreciation of beauty in art, nature, and life. 

In ancient Greece, Plato and Aristotle studied this concept by thinking about what constituted beauty. Today, many philosophers still study aesthetics by examining the nature of art and beauty.

What is Axiology?

Axiology is the study of value. It is the study of the different values people place on objects, actions, or experiences.  The word axiology comes from the Greek word Axios which means “worthy”. Axiology is also the philosophical study of ethics, aesthetics, and personal values. 

An axiological approach to thinking about a problem is one that is focused on finding the values that may be involved in any given situation.  As a result, axiology has a lot to do with ethics and morals. It’s important to note that axiology is not limited to humans.

What is Theology?

Theology is the study of God and the divine, as well as the discipline that seeks to provide a rational understanding of religious beliefs. Theology is also the study of Christian theology, which is the theological reflection on Christian beliefs. 

The term was coined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century and derived from the Greek terms, “theos” (god) and “logia” (study).In a nutshell, theology is the study of God and religion. It is the study of religious beliefs and doctrines and the relationship between God and humankind. 

Theology is one of the oldest academic disciplines, and it has been around for thousands of years. There are many different schools of thought, but the main idea is that God exists and is responsible for everything in the universe.

What is Political Philosophy?

Political philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of political life, the state, and the justification and limits of the exercise of political power. It asks questions such as: 

  • What is government? 
  • What rights do citizens have? 
  • How should laws be made? 
  • What is the role of civil society?
  • What are the rights of humans? 
  • What is the role of government? 
  • How should we govern ourselves?

Political philosophy also includes social, ethical, and political theories.


Philosophy is the branch of knowledge that studies the nature of the world, our knowledge of it, and how we ought to live. There are four main branches of philosophy. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What are the 8 branches of Philosophy?

What are the 4 pillars of philosophy?

The four pillars of philosophy are the following: 

  • theoretical philosophy
  • practical philosophy
  • Logic
  • history of philosophy

What branch of philosophy discusses the meaning of life?

Also known as moral philosophy, Ethics is frequently alluded to as the investigation of morality. It tries to resolve inquiries regarding how we ought to carry on with our lives, how we characterize appropriate conduct, and what good life means.

Who is the father of Philosophy?

Socrates of Athens is known as the “Father of Western Philosophy” because of his contributions to the development of ancient Greek philosophy which provided the foundation for all of Western Philosophy.


Durant, W. (1961). Story of philosophy. Simon and Schuster.

Maritain, J. (2005). An introduction to philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield.

Von Hildebrand, D., & Seifert, J. (1960). What is philosophy?. Routledge.

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