What are the 50 branches of Science?

This short guide answers the question “what are the 50 branches of science?” we will also discuss what is modern science and what are its major divisions.

What are the 50 branches of Science?

Here is the list of 50 branches of science in alphabetical order:

  • Aerodynamics – The scientific study of gasses motion on objects and the forces it created.
  • Anatomy – The scientific study of the structure, parts, and organization of living things
  • Anthropology – Also known as the study of apes and man, 

It is the science of human cultures both past and present. 

  • Archaeology – The scientific study of the artifacts and other remains of the past cultures
  • Astronomy – The scientific study of celestial objects and heavenly bodies in the universe. 
  • Astrophysics – The scientific study of the physics of the universe
  • Bacteriology – The scientific study of bacteria and its relationship with diseases
  • Biochemistry – The scientific study of the processes and organic chemistry of compounds occurring in organisms
  • Biology – The science that studies life
  • Biophysics – The application of physical sciences’ theories and methods to answer the questions in biology
  • Biotechnology – this branch of science uses microorganisms in commercial processes to produce chemicals such as drugs; vaccines; hormones, etc.
  • Botany – The scientific study of the plant kingdom
  • Cardiology – The science that deals with the heart.
  • Chemical Engineering – This field applies science, mathematics, and engineering to process and converts raw materials like chemicals to make them more useful
  • Chemistry – The science that deals with the study of matter and its interactions with energy and itself
  • Ecology – The study of organisms’ interaction with the environment and each other
  • Electronics – The field that deals with technology and other electronic phenomena
  • Engineering – The science that deals with the practical application of science to commerce or industry
  • Environmental Science – The science that deals with the study of the interactions between the biotic and abiotic components of the environment
  • Eugenics – Studies how the human race can advance in the future generation by applying the laws of heredity. 
  • Evolution – The science of investigation of the transformation and development of organisms and how they come to be.
  • Genetics – The science that deals with the variations of organisms through their genes and heredity
  • Geology – The science of the structure and history of the earth
  • Immunology – The science that deals with the study of organisms’ resistance to infection.
  • Jurisprudence – The science of law.
  • Marine Biology – The study of life within the aquatic ecosystems
  • Mathematics – The science that deals with the logic of quantity, shape, number, and arrangement
  • Medicine – The science involved in the diagnosis, treatment, cure, and maintenance of the human health and well being
  • Meteorology – The science that uses weather processes and forecasting to study the atmosphere
  • Microbiology – The study of the minute life of viruses, prokaryotic and simple eukaryotic microorganisms
  • Molecular Biology – The study of life at a molecular level
  • Neurology – The science that deals with the nervous system and its conditions and disorders
  • Nuclear Physics – The branch of physics that focuses on the nucleus of the atom
  • Oceanography – The study of the chemical and physical processes of the earth’s oceans and its environment
  • Ophthalmology – Study of eyes.
  • Organic Chemistry – The branch of chemistry that deals with the structures, synthesis, and reactions of chemical compounds that contain carbons
  • Paleontology – The study of all life-forms that existed in the past geological epoch
  • Pathology – Study of organisms that can cause diseases.
  • Phonetics – This is the study concerned with the sounds of a language.
  • Physics – The science of matter and its behavior and properties
  • Physiography – This field deals with all the natural phenomena.
  • Physiology – The medicine of the physical, biochemical, and mechanical functions of the living organisms
  • Psychology – The study of the mind and how it affects behavior
  • Radiology – The practical applications of radiant energy like x-rays and radioisotopes
  • Seismology – The study of the movement of waves through the earth and earthquakes
  • Taxonomy – The science of classifying plants and animals
  • Thermodynamics – The science that deals with the spontaneous processes of energy, heat, work, and entropy
  • Toxicology – The study of poisons and other toxic substances
  • Virology – The science that deals with the study of viruses.
  • Zoology – The science of animal life

What is modern science?

the birth of modern science dates back from the earliest Middle Ages in 1277 throughout the 17th century and some argue up to the early 20th century.

Modern science is characterized by the application of tools in studying the natural world perceivable only by the senses. This modernization of science led to the emergence of branches of science that deals with theoretical components of the natural world.

One of the most important components of modern science is the scientific method which is not present in the old science. The old science includes theology and metaphysics which became the foundation of its system

Modern science derives from scientific methods of formulation, investigation, and understanding of a body of knowledge in a systematic manner. This does not include beliefs and other intangible and unquantifiable variables. 

The scientific method, as the name suggests is a systematic way of observing, investigating, and understanding the what, why, and how of everything.

It is a step-by-step procedure where in you first make an intelligent guess as to what the outcome of a process or experiment will be. Secondly, you will use various tests that will isolate the variables so that you can achieve your objective and outcome. 

Lastly, If the hypothesis did not meet with the conclusion of the investigation, your hypothesis must be changed to match up with the outcomes.

What are the major divisions of modern science?

Modern science is characterized by its three major divisions which are the Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and Formal sciences. Natural sciences deal with the study of the nature of our physical world. Exapample branches are biology, chemistry, and physics.

Social sciences deal with the study of humans, their societies from across the globe, their relationship with each other, and their interaction with their social environment. Example branches are Anthropology, Archaeology, Geography, Economics, History, Politics, Psychology, and Law.

Formal sciences is a recent emerging branch of natural science as it deals with the application of systems to produce understanding. Disciplines relating to formal sciences are Mathematics, Information technology, Computer Science, Logic, Statistics, and Artificial intelligence. 


The branches of science are wide-ranging as it is the epitome of a systematized body of knowledge. Everything we know about our world is derived from these branches and their contributions to the advancement of our society and the modern world.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): what are the 50 branches of science?

What are the branches of chemistry?

The branches of chemistry are the following: 

  • Areas of Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry.
  • Biological/Biochemistry.
  • Chemical Engineering.
  • Inorganic Chemistry.
  • Organic Chemistry.
  • Physical Chemistry.

Who is the Father of science?

Galileo was named the “father of modern science” by Albert Einstein.  Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564. 

Who is the first female scientist?

Merit-Ptah ( c. 2700 BC) is an ancient Egyptian physician who was described in an inscription as “chief physician”, and is the earliest known female scientist named in the history of science.


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Modern science. (n.d.) Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014. (1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014). Retrieved June 5 2022 from https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Modern+science

John, Spacey. (2019, June 17). 50 Types of Science. Simplicable.

Retrieved from: https://simplicable.com/new/science