What are the 3 main branches of science?

The science of science is a broad field of study that encompasses many fields of study. In this article, we will explore the three main branches of science and their respective subdisciplines to help you understand the science that is relevant to you.

What are the 3 main branches of science?

Three main branches of science are used in understanding the world we live in:

  • Natural or physical science
  • Social science
  • Formal science 

Science is a vast field of study that is constantly growing in new and exciting ways. There are three main branches of science and many subdisciplines within each one. The three main branches are natural sciences, social sciences, and formal sciences. 

Each branch of science has its subdiscipline. This is because each branch of science is focused on a different area of study. Since the study of science is vast, there are many different subdisciplines to each of the 3 main branches. 

What is science?

Science is the study of the natural world and the universe. It is a broad field of study concerned with the collection, organization, and systematic study of the natural and social world around us. 

Three main branches of modern science are used in understanding the world we live in: natural or physical science, social science, and life science. Each branch of science is further broken down into subdisciplines. 

Natural or physical science

Natural or physical science is the science of the natural world. It investigates how the natural world behaves and how it may have changed over time.

Natural science, as a branch of science that looks at the natural world around us, includes topics like astronomy, geology, and biology. The following are the three main branches of natural or physical science and their definition: 

  • Biological science – This is a branch of natural science that is concerned with living things and how they work. This includes topics like botany, zoology, and microbiology
  • Physical science – This is a branch of natural science that is concerned with matter in relation to heat and energy. This includes topics like geophysics, thermodynamics, and astronomy.
  • Chemical science – This is a branch of natural science that is concerned with matter and its chemical processes. This includes topics like Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Physical Chemistry.

Natural science also includes the following sub-disciplines of sciences such as taxonomy, organic chemistry, and modern physics as well as astronomy, earth science, and geography.

The Social Science

The social sciences are comprised of the fields of anthropology, economics, sociology, and political science. The social sciences are concerned with human behavior and social institutions, and they aim to find the causes and consequences of human behavior. They also study how societies function, and how they are changing. The social sciences are the study of human behavior, such as anthropology and sociology. The humanities are the study of literature, linguistics, and history.

The social sciences are divided into two subdisciplines: the behavioral sciences and the humanistic sciences.

The behavioral sciences

This branch of social science presents human behavior and actions in a systematic study of experimentation and observation to understand them logically. 

It encompasses various fields of study because of the impact of humans’ thoughts, decisions, interactions, and actions on our modern world today.

Behavioral sciences include psychology, sociology, psychobiology, anthropology, cognitive science, geography, law, political science, and economics.

The humanistic sciences

Humanistic science is also known as human science which deals with the study of human social problems and public affairs throughout human existence.

The humanistic science includes the study of ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy, history, archaeology, linguistics, sociology, and geography.

Other branches of Social Science are:

  • Anthropology
  • Archaeology
  • Criminology 
  • Cultural studies
  • Development studies
  • Education
  • Human Geography
  • History
  • Law
  • Politics
  • International relations

Formal Sciences

Formal Sciences is a seriously remarkable area of concentration in Science as it utilizes formal frameworks to deliver information and investigate the idea of various disciplines going from Mathematics, and Logic to Computer Science and Information Technology.

As an emerging field of study in the recent century, formal sciences have seen some of the most important advances in science and our overall understanding of it. In simple terms, formal sciences are the application of systematic knowledge in practical uses.

The most important subdisciplines under the Formal Sciences are the following:

  • Artificial Intelligence – is the building of computer-controlled smart machines to simulate human intelligence and perform tasks that requires critical thinking possible only to humans
  • Computer Science – is a computational system. It uses theoretical and algorithmic foundations to create hardware and software computer technology.
  • Data Science – Data science or information science is the area of study that alludes to the most common way of separating clean data to form significant experiences. It manages tremendous volumes of information utilizing current devices and strategies to track down inconspicuous examples
  • Information Technology – IT uses computer systems,  storage, networking, and devices to access, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of electronic information.
  • Logic – is the science that deals with the standards and rules of the legitimacy of deduction to exhibit demonstrations.
  • Mathematics – the science of numbers. Mathematics has evolved from simply counting numbers to becoming knowledge of structure, order, and measurement. Some of its disciplines are algebra, geometry, number theory, and trigonometry.
  • Statistics – is the science of collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data and information.
  • Systems Science – Systems Science is an interdisciplinary field that concentrates on the overall standards overseeing the intricacy of the utilization of frameworks, thoughts, and strategies in nature, society, or some other generally varying kinds of a logical field of systematics.

Conclusion

Science is the study of the natural world and the universe. It is a broad field of study concerned with the collection, organization, and systematic study of the natural and social world around us. Three main branches of science are used in understanding the world we live in: natural or physical science, social science, and formal science. Each branch of science is further broken down into subdisciplines. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): what are the 3 main branches of science?

Who is the Father of science?

Galileo Galilei, born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564, was named the “father of modern science” by Albert Einstein. 

Who is the first female scientist?

The earliest known female scientist named in the history of science is an Egyptian physician named Merit-Ptah ( c. 2700 BC) who was described in an inscription as “chief physician”

What part of science is the study of the human body?

The branch of science that deals with the human body are Anatomy and Physiology.

Reference

Chalmers, A. F. (2013). What is this thing called science?. Hackett Publishing.

Ziman, J. (2001). Real science: What it is, and what it means.

Poincaré, H., & Maitland, F. (2003). Science and method. Courier Corporation.

Branches of Sciences – Physical, Earth & Life Sciences | Leverage Edu. Retrieved from https://leverageedu.com/blog/branches-of-science/

What Is Management? Definitions, Functions, and Styles | Indeed.com. Retrieved from https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/what-is-management

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