What are the 3 branches of government in Canada?

Canada is a country with many policies and laws that are in place to ensure the safety, security, and stability of its citizens. One of the most important policies and laws in Canada is the Constitution Act, of 1867. It is a document that outlines the ways in which the government is organized and how citizens can participate in the political process. This article will discuss the three main branches of government in Canada and what each branch does for the country.

What are the 3 branches of government in Canada?

The 3 branches of government in Canada and their members are the following;

  • The Executive Branch – President, Prime Minister, Cabinet, Ministers
  • The Legislative Branch – Senate, House of Commons
  • The Judicial Branch – Supreme Court of Canada, Court of Appeal, Superior Court of Quebec, Provincial Court, County Court

The Canadian government is composed of three branches: the executive (the Governor-General), the legislative (the Parliament of Canada), and the judicial (the courts).

What is the Constitution Act of 1867?

The Constitution Act of 1867 was initially known as the British North America Act (BNA Act). The Act is the fundamental account of Canada’s Constitution. 

It frames the construction of government in Canada and the dispersion of abilities between the center Parliament and the common assemblies. It became effective on 1 July 1867.

The Act is supplemented by British and Canadian resolutions that make a protected difference — the Canada Elections Act, as well as specific unwritten standards known as established shows conventions. It doesn’t carry the whole Constitution of Canada.

The Constitution Act of 1867 was the law passed by the British Parliament on 29 March 1867 to make the Dominion of Canada. It was renamed the Constitution Act of 1867 with the patriation of the Constitution in 1982. 

The Constitution Act perceived the freedoms of Native people, rooted on balance in bureaucratic awards to regions, set out an established changing cycle, and refreshed the separate purviews of Canada’s administrative and provincial legislatures.

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is included inside the Act, which ensures the central opportunities, privileges, versatility privileges, legitimate privileges, correspondence privileges, and Canada’s official language.

Numerous significant arrangements are incorporated inside Canada’s Constitution Act that builds how the Canadian bureaucratic and government states can communicate among themselves and with general society.

The Canada Act of 1982 basically proclaims that the United Kingdom no longer enacts for Canada.

What is the Executive Branch?

The executive branch is the branch of government that has responsibility for the daily running of the country. In Canada, the executive branch is made up of the Prime Minister and his or her cabinet. 

The Prime Minister is the head of the executive branch of government and is the head of state. The executive branch is responsible for making executive decisions in the country.

It is also accountable for making the laws that govern Canada. The Prime Minister also has executive powers, which are given to him or her by the constitution.

What is the Legislative Branch?

The Legislative Branch is the branch of government that consists of the Parliament of Canada. The Parliament is responsible for enacting the laws in Canada and making legislative decisions in the country.

The Legislative Branch is also accountable for passing laws and setting the budget for the country. 

What is the Judicial Branch?

The Judicial Branch of the Canadian government is responsible for justice in the country. The Judicial Branch is divided into the Supreme Court of Canada, the Federal Court of Canada, the Tax Court of Canada, and the various provincial courts.

The Supreme Court of Canada is one of the courts of judicial branches of the Canadian government that makes judicial decisions in the country. It is the highest court in the country and is responsible for interpreting the Canadian constitution. 

The Supreme Court of Canada also rules on any cases that are brought to it. The Federal Court of Canada is responsible for hearing cases in which a Canadian citizen is suing the government. 

The Tax Court of Canada is the court that hears cases about taxes. In short, the judicial branch is responsible for the administration of justice in Canada.


The three branches of government of Canada are the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, and the Judicial Branch. The executive branch is led by the Prime Minister. It is responsible for the day-to-day running of the country. 

The legislative branch is led by the Canadian Parliament and is responsible for making laws. The judicial branch is led by the Chief Justice of Canada. It is responsible for deciding whether laws are constitutional and whether citizens are guilty of breaking them.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs): What are the 3 branches of government in Canada?

What is the difference between the Senate and the House of Commons?

The Senate being designated as the upper house of parliament does not infer it is more important and powerful than the House of Commons which is the lower house. It merely entails that its individuals and officials outclass the individuals and officials of the Commons in the request for priority for the motivations behind the convention.

How old is Canada?

Canada is turning 156 years old in 2023.

Who is Canada’s current prime minister?

The current Prime Minister of Canada is The Right Honourable Justin Trudeau


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