What are the 25 branches of science?

Science is an integral part of everything we know about our natural world. It encompasses every foundation of knowledge and understanding we have as a modern society today. As a systematic body of knowledge, science is divided into different branches to give more focus on a specific field of study. This article answers the question of what are the 25 branches of science.

What are the 25 branches of science?

The 24 branches of science are the following in alphabetical order:

  • Anatomy
  • Anthropology 
  • Astronomy
  • Biology
  • Biotechnology
  • Chemistry
  • Ecology
  • Engineering
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Geography
  • Immunology
  • Mathematics
  • Microbiology
  • Neurology
  • Oceanography
  • Pathology
  • Physics
  • Physiology
  • Psychology
  • Statistics
  • Taxonomy
  • Thermodynamics
  • Virology
  • Zoology

Science can be distinguished into three main divisions; natural sciences; social sciences; and applied sciences. These divisions further diverge into different branches of studies in various fields.

For example; biology, chemistry, and physics are all included in the natural sciences while psychology, anthropology, and geography are part of the social sciences. Applied sciences, as the name suggests, are the practical application of systems and logic like mathematics, engineering, and statistics.


Anatomy is the science of body structure. Also considered a subdiscipline of biology, this branch examines and identifies the cells, organs, and organ systems like the skeletal system or nervous system of every living organism from smallest to largest ones. 


It is the study of humanity. its goal is to understand all things related to humans including biology, evolution, characteristics, culture, language, societies, and everything unique to humans from a primitive age to contemporary times.


Astronomy is the science of the universe. Outside our planets, billions of objects exist from our neighboring planets — Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, sun, moon, stars, comets, star clusters, black holes, and other celestial objects and phenomena. 

Astronomy aims to understand and explain the origin and evolution and the possible presence of extraterrestrial life outside our planet’s atmosphere.


Biology is the science of life. From the Greek word “bio” meaning life and “logos” meaning study, biology encompasses almost all fields of study related to living things making it one of the broadest and largest disciplines in science. 

It is also one of the major branches of natural science together with physics and chemistry. Biology studies all aspects and characteristics of various living organisms found on earth from the smallest microorganisms to the largest ones like the blue whale and general german tree.


Biotechnology is the application and integration of technology in the processes related to biology. This field utilizes engineering, tools, and technology that can harness living organisms’ chemical and cellular processes to produce products that are healthcare-related such as medicines. 

One of the most known biotechnology products is the GMO’s or genetically modified organisms which are synthetically manipulated organisms through genetic engineering to exhibit new characteristics.


Chemistry is the science of matter, its elements, and compounds. It is one of the major branches of natural science because it studies the properties, structure, behavior, and changes of all substances that occupy space and has mass.


Ecology is the study of the environment of living organisms. A subdiscipline of biology, this field of study focuses on the relationship of every organism living in an ecosystem. 

The relationship includes mutualism, commensalism, ammensalism, parasitism, and predation. Humans, considered super predator, is included in the science of ecology. 


Engineering is the systematical application of techniques and principles in science and mathematics in the process of using natural resources to build and design tools, machinery, and structures to aid humans in solving practical problems.


Evolution is a subdiscipline of biology that studies the cumulative changes that organisms undergo over several generations starting from prehistoric times. 

Evolution relies upon natural selection which states that the survival and extinction of species are characterized by their ability to cope and adapt to an ever-changing environment as well as food resources, predation, population, climate change, and reproduction.


Genetics is the science of heredity. It is a subdiscipline of biology that focuses on the genes found in the DNA of organisms that are passed down from parents to offspring. 


Geography is the science of graphing the earth. It studies the influence of people, environment, phenomena, and other factors that shape the earth.


Immunology is a subdiscipline of biology and medicine that focuses on the immune system that protects the body against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms.


Mathematics is the science of shapes, patterns, and numbers. Mathematics is considered an applied science because by studying the shape, properties, quantity, quality, arrangement, structure, abstract, and order of objects, it can utilize knowledge in practical application to solve problems.


Microbiology is the study of all minute life forms on earth whether unicellular, unicellular, or multicellular organisms that are invisible to the naked eye. Microbiology is one of the major subdisciplines of biology and encompasses other subdisciplines such as bacteriology, virology, etc.


Neurology is the scientific study of the nervous system and the brain. 


Oceanography is the science of the ocean. It is concerned with all aspects of the earth’s Oceana including its trenches, tropics, temperature, condition, and life cycles. 


Pathology is the science of diseases. Although it is more relevant to medicine, pathology uses a systematic body of knowledge to diagnose nature and identify all the possible causes of disease.


Physics is the science of the observable nature of the universe — how and why it works. Its study focuses on the matter’s motion and behavior through space and time.


Physiology is the scientific study of the mechanisms of a living organism’s body including its biology, function, chemical processes, and activities from the cellular level such as cellular metabolism to organ system functions like breathing.


Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology focuses on the mental processes that affect the behavior of an individual. It also examines how biology and society influence how people think and dictate one’s behavior


Is the science of data. From collecting to organizing to analysis, and interpretation, statistics develop methods to interpret empirical data. Statistics is a branch of applied sciences specifically the subdiscipline of mathematics.


Taxonomy is the science of organizing organisms into groups. Taxonomy is responsible for the naming, recounting, describing, and classifying of organisms with similar characteristics into groups of kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus, and specie. 

For example, both humans and chimpanzees belong to the same family of hominids but diverged into different groups in genus since the former is homo while the latter belongs to the genus pan.


Thermodynamics is the science of heat and energy. A subdiscipline of physics, thermodynamics deals with the relationship between work, heat, energy, and temperature.


Virology is the science of viruses. A subdiscipline of microbiology, virology focuses on studying viruses and the diseases they cause, especially in humans.


Zoology is the science of animals. It is one of the major branches of biology and encompasses various subdisciplines because it is devoted to understanding the physiology, evolution, taxonomy, and biology of all organisms belonging to the kingdom Animalia.


Science is a way of organizing facts, data, and understanding of different topics and research into a testable hypothesis and its result can become a body of knowledge or an application of the said knowledge, or both. Science can be divided into different branches to give exclusive focus on specific topics and fields.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): what are the 25 branches of science?

Who is the father of science?

Galileo Galilei is known as the father of Science.

What do you call people who are professionals in science?

Science professionals are called scientists. They are trained and equipped with skills and knowledge to do scientific research in specific fields of science.

What is the meaning of science?

Science is the study of observable, identifiable, describable, and explainable natural phenomena through experiments, investigation, and research.


Chalmers, A. F. (2013). What is this thing called science?. Hackett Publishing.

Ziman, J. (2001). Real science: What it is, and what it means.

Gooding, D., Pinch, T., & Schaffer, S. (Eds.). (1989). The uses of experiment: Studies in the natural sciences. Cambridge University Press.

Seligman, E. R. (1930). What are the social sciences. Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 1, 3-7.

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