What are the 20 branches of biology?

Biology is one of the broadest systematized bodies of knowledge because of its focal study: life and everything that comes with it. In this short guide, we will answer the question “what are the 20 branches of Biology?”.

What are the 20 branches of biology?

Here is the alphabetical list of the 20 branches of biology and their definition:

  • Anatomy
  • Biochemistry
  • Botany
  • Computational Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Ecology
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Human Biology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • Neurobiology
  • Parasitology
  • Pathology
  • Physiology
  • Taxonomy
  • Toxicology
  • Urology
  • Virology
  • Zoology


This branch of biology deals with the identification and description of the body parts of living things. It is a branch that examines the structure of the body’s cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and their function to the whole organisms.


An interdisciplinary branch of biology, chemistry, and laboratory that deals with the study of chemical reactions and biological processes that occurs in many life activities at the cellular and molecular level.


Botany, also known as plant science is the branch of biology that deals with the study of the structure, properties, biochemical processes, and the relationship of plants to other organisms and each other. 

Computational Biology

A scientific study in biology that uses large amounts of biological information to develop computations, theoretical methods, and mathematical modeling to understand biological processes. It is a broad discipline as it encompasses diverse sciences.

Developmental Biology

The scientific study of the biological development, growth, and processes found in plants and animals and how these processes generate their cell groupings, shape, sizes, and overall structure. 


A branch of biology deals with how organisms interact, their distribution, abundance, and how they respond to their unique physical environment.


The branch of science deals with the study of the changes and origin of past and present-day organisms as well as their variation and diversity in characteristics over several successive generations. 


This branch of biology studies genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms – how certain traits are present from parents to offspring and what are the determining factors and processes that happened during the manifestation.

Human Biology

A field in biology that specifically studies the species of humans from their evolution, genetics, heredity, anatomy, development, nutrition, and many more aspects.


Immunology is an important branch of biology and medicine as it studies the immune system and the body’s built-in defense as it protects itself against communicable diseases caused by microorganisms. 


This branch focuses on the minute simple life forms of living organisms invisible to the naked eye called microorganisms. This group of microbes includes bacteria, fungi, algae, archaea, viruses, and protozoa. It is one of the major branches of biology.


This is the study of the biological mechanisms in which the nervous system operates. This branch includes the nervous system, brain, and other related organs’ function, physiology, and pathology. It is a sub-discipline of both biology and neurology. 


It is the study of parasites such as parasitic helminths, protozoa, and arthropods and their relationship to their hosts. This relationship is a biological phenomenon that occurs virtually in a lot of major animal groups.


This is a branch of biology and a discipline of medicine that deals with the study of diseases and other conditions found in organisms. It is involved in the investigation of the cause, nature, and origin of diseases.


It is the branch of biology that aims to understand the human body; how it operates, what are the mechanisms behind every basic function, and how the cell, organs, organ systems, and biomolecules carry out chemical processes under normal conditions.


This branch focuses on the systematic scheme of classification, arrangement, description, and naming of organisms into their related kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, groups, and species. 


This is the study of the adverse influence of natural or man-made biological, physical, and chemical agents on different organisms most especially in humans. 


It is the study of the abnormalities of the urinary and genitourinary tract like kidneys and urinary bladder. It is a subdiscipline of both biology and medicine. 


It is the study of the evolution, structure, life cycle, taxonomy, functions, properties, and genetic materials of  viruses responsible for viral diseases


Also known as animal science, Zoology is one of the significant branches of biology that deals with the study of animal life, structure, physiology, characteristics, distribution, and development. 

What are the other branches of biology?

Some of the other branches are the following:

  • Agriculture 
  • Mycology
  • Phycology
  • Theoretical Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Biophysics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Structural Biology
  • Biotechnology
  • Marine Biology
  • Photobiology
  • Radiobiology
  • Marine Biology
  • Gerontology
  • Geobiology
  • Environmental Biology
  • Chronobiology
  • Bioinformatics
  • Astrobiology

What are the three main branches of biology?

The three main branches of biology are botany, zoology, and microbiology. These are the major branches because their focus is a wide range and it encompasses many more sub-disciplines. For example, microbiology also covers molecular biology, virology, pathology, and parasitology because it studies microorganisms. Botany also covers agriculture and photobiology as both deal with plants. Zoology is a broad branch as well since it covers all topics on animals including humans.


Biology came from the Greek word bios meaning life and logos meaning study. In short, biology is the study of life, its vital processes, and every physicochemical aspect of it.

Biology is a natural science discipline with a broad scope but has a singular theme that makes it all coherent and that is life in all forms, shapes, and sizes living together in different environments with different functions and needs.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What are the 20 branches of biology?

Who is the father of biology?

Aristotle is considered the father of biology. During the Classical period in Ancient Greece, he founded the Peripatetic school of philosophy, Lyceum. Aristotle is one of the apprentices of Plato. 

What are the seven types of biologists?

The seven types of biologists are the following: 

  • Ecologist.
  • Biological engineer.
  • Biostatistician.
  • Forensic biologist.
  • Microbiologist.
  • Marine biologist.
  • Wildlife biologist.

What is basic biology?

Biology is the innate science that includes the investigation of life and living creatures. Without science, it would be hard to figure out the life structures of people, creatures, and different animals.


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