What are the 2 main branches of geography?

Geography is a great discipline to learn as it can provide us with a holistic understanding of our planet, its systems, and phenomena. This article answers the question “what are the 2 main branches of geography?” we will also discuss what is geography and what are the other sub-disciplines of this study

What are the 2 main branches of geography?

The 2 main branches of biology are the following:

  • Physical Geography
  • Human Geography

What is Geography?

Geography is derived from the Greek words “geo” meaning earth and “grapho” meaning to write. In short, geography is recognized as the writing about the earth.

Geography is a systematized body of knowledge that studies the earth; its influence to humans and other living organisms, its atmosphere, lands, physical features as well as human activities.

This discipline explores the relationship between the natural sciences and social sciences as its main two branches are Physical Geography and Human Geography. 

In summary, Geography is the branch of science that investigates the nature, organization, and other relative aspects of the physical location, places, activities, and human societies all over the biosphere.

What is Physical Geography and its sub-disciplines?

Geography is generally divided into 2 main branches and other branch falls under it. The different branches of geographyhelps us understand our planet and its people better. These major branches are the Physical Geography and Human Geography.

Physical Geography

Physical geography, from the word itself focuses on the physical features and properties of the earths land, water, climate, soil and even plants. 

In this branch the heights of mountains and the temperatures of places as well as the changes that occur over time is tracked and carefully documented. This collections of data gives us general information about our world.

What are the different features of the earth? What are the effect of these features to the people and their societies? How does the physical world works? These are the questions that the Physical Geography id trying to understand and give answer to.

Physical Geography also helps us understand what lies beneath the biosphere ice caps and oceans. There is also a curiosity about the physical nature and characteristics of the land underneath the ocean bed.

Not only the biosphere, physical geography also tackles the natural world and that includes the lithosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and atmosphere.

Earth science is also considered as a physical geography as it tries to understand the physicalfeatures of the world’s natural landscape as well as examine the formative and destructive forces associated with its characteristics.

This discipline also covers a number of fields. Sub-disciplines include the following:

  • Biogeography
  • Landscape ecology
  • environmental management
  • Glaciology
  • Hydrography
  • geomorphology 
  • hydrology
  • Demography
  • Economic Geography
  • Political Geography
  • Urban Geography
  • Climatology
  • Meteorology
  • Geomorphology
  • Cartography
  • Pedology
  • Oceanology
  • Glaciology
  • Palaeogeography
  • Coastal geography 
  • Quaternary geography
  • Geomatics

In summary, Physical Geography deals with the features in the landscape, development of physical systems, spatial distribution, movement, and different attributes of fauna and flora.

What is Human Geography and its sub-disciplines?

Human geography also known as Cultural geography involves the understanding of the worlds human aspect with regards to geography; people, communities, population and landscapes.

This major branch of geography look at the people and the world as a set; What dynamics play in the development of human race and the natural world when it comes to food, climate, safety, and resources. Other human aspects includes  economic, social, cultural, and political.

Human geography’s main goal is to understand the impact of the worlds landscape in the processes and patterns behind the shape and formation of the human societies.

Other topics studied in this discipline includes jobs, crops, migration, interaction, organization, culture, behavior, politics, values and beliefs and how these aspects is the result of the particular regions that they inhabit.

Likewise, the discipline additionally concentrates on how the cooperations and the discernments that individuals from that human populace have for different philosophies influencing them as well as the manner by which the gatherings that occupy the Earth sort out themselves in the specific locales that they possess.

Like physical geography, human geography has numerous fields of specialization beacuse it helps to understand the overview of its many sub-disciplines. Here is the list below:

  • economic geography
  • health geography
  • historical geography
  • population geography
  • rural geography
  • social geography
  • urban geography
  • Cultural geography
  • Time geography
  • Marketig geography
  • Political geography
  • Transportational geography
  • Regional geography
  • Animal geography

Human geography can be partitioned into different fields, including social, historical, metropolitan, political, cultural, financial, improvement, and wellbeing topography. Over the long run, extra sub-disciplines have been added, like conduct topography and feminism.

What are the other branches of Geography?

Integrated Geography

Integrated geography manages the connection of the earth with people and vice versa. From the enormous detonation to the ongoing current time, our planet has developed and has been significantly influenced by our reality. 

People have consumed the different assets of the earth and furthermore have assembled machines and gear to control it. Far off sensors, man-made assets, calamities, and so forth go under this branch of geography.


The making of maps and showing precise information is called Cartography. Continuing to refresh the ongoing worldwide map is vital. It incorporates logical, realistic and imaginative information on the different areas, states, nations, and mainlands. 

The spatial information of the guide can be modified because of the changing climate and elements of the earth. 


Thisbranch og geology concentrates on the designing of assortment, appropriation, capacity, investigate, cycle, and present information that have been accumulated about the geographic data. 

Geomatics is connected with Geographic Information Systems and the other geospatial sciences. 


The field of Geography have different studies, highlights, and associations with other disciplines. The large number of physical properties and human social orders are the premise of geography. 

Being such a covering field, it is generally characterized by its two major branches as well as the various sub-disciplines of physical geography and human geography. 

Our planet is a perplexing wonder that has different complexities and peculiarities has numerous historians interest because of the subtleties of our environmental elements and mysteries further into the different parts of our natural world. These curiosities gave rise to what Geography is today.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): what are the 2 main branches of geography?

Who is the father of Geography?

Eratosthenes, an acient greek philosopher is considered as the father of geography. In his early works, he was able to determine the circumference of the earth using a small scale notion. He is also the first to use the term geology.

What are the two main features of human geography?

The two main features of human geography are the following

  • Where are human activities located
  • Why specific human activities exist in specific location

What are geographers?

Geographers are scientist who study the Earth features and the distribution of its landmarks. Geographers also study the physical, political, cultural, political, and geographic features of the globe from local regions to international waters. 


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Seterra Geography – Free Map Quiz Games. Retrieved June 10, 2022, from https://www.geoguessr.com/seterra/en 

What are the two main branches of geography? | Study.com. Retrieved June 10, 2022, from https://study.com/academy/answer/what-are-the-two-main-branches-of-geography.html 

What Is Economic Geography? – WorldAtlas. Retrieved June 10, 2022, from https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-economic-geography.html