What are the 10 branches of agriculture?

In this brief guide, we are going to answer the question ‘’What are the 10 branches of agriculture?’’ We will highlight the main branches of agriculture, what each one studies and we will explain the importance of the role of agriculture in humanity.

What are the 10 branches of agriculture?

The 10 branches of agriculture are:

  • Agronomy 
  • Genetics and plant breeding
  • Soil science & soil chemistry
  • Plant physiology
  • Entomology
  • Horticulture
  • Agricultural Extension
  • Agricultural Economics
  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Animal Husbandry

Agriculture is a set of techniques for the cultivation of the land designed to maximize the quality and quantity of the harvest.

Agriculture, as we know it today, originates with the discovery of the plough in 3500 BC. in Mesopotamia.

Those who study the applied science and techniques of agriculture are called agronomists or agronomists. On the other hand, it is the farmer who works the land and who possesses the necessary knowledge to cultivate and renew the soils.

Agriculture is considered, along with livestock and fishing, activities of the primary economic sector as it is the basis of food and life in society. As a whole, it is called the agricultural sector. On the other hand, the products of this sector are called agricultural products.

10 Branches of agriculture


Agronomy is responsible for studying the models of human intervention on nature, it must analyze the factors of plant and animal production, it focuses on the transformation and conservation processes of these products to achieve lower costs and thus meet the needs of a population.

The characteristics that an agronomist must have are fundamental to his field of work. Some of the fundamental qualities that an agronomist must possess are the following:

  • You should feel comfortable and have a taste for outdoor activities.
  • Interest in natural resources and agricultural problems.
  • You must know how to work in a team.
  • Vocation for service.
  • You must have your own critical attitude.
  • Must meet computer skills, English, social sciences and general culture.
  • Skills to communicate fluently and in writing.
  • Take into account the values ​​of honesty and responsibility.
  • Knowledge of physics, mathematics, chemistry and biology is important.

Genetics and plant breeding

From the beginning of agriculture to the present day, farmers have contributed to the genetic improvement of plants, selecting seeds from the best plants in each harvest and in this way they have guaranteed genetic advancement by selecting and obtaining genotypes with better performance in the specific environments in which they were selected.

Although the farmers do not include witnesses or replications they have other factors that guaranteed the success of their work, the main one being the knowledge of the ecosystem where they carry out their activity.

Through the years the experimentation of farmers has made possible the domestication of a wide range of plants, resulting in the existence of thousands of genetically different plants as well as the increase and in situ conservation of biodiversity.

Soil science

Edaphology teaches us how to use the soil to make the most of its different functions. It is an applied science that inspires the most appropriate techniques and practices to achieve these objectives. But it is also a science of important theoretical foundations that it is necessary to know to guide the work of technicians and scientists with safe criteria.

Soil science, which was established as such a little more than a hundred years ago, already has a rich history in which concepts and methods were coined that served to interpret the complex behavior of the soil, surely one of the natural entities of composition and more diverse and heterogeneous dynamics.

At first, these methods and concepts were taken from other sciences, but little by little a body of doctrine proper and specific to edaphology was born that, today, clearly defines and differentiates it from other disciplines.

Plant physiology

The concrete definition indicates that plant physiology is the science that studies the physical and chemical changes that occur in the plant organism.

Plant physiology studies the processes that occur in plant life and their significance for the life of the plant as a whole. It is not a discipline of direct application, but it is basic for a good use of plants, because only by understanding their mechanisms of action can we try to manage and modify them for the benefit of man.


Coming from biology, entomology is the science that studies insects. This discipline classifies the different insects of the animal world, depending on their taxonomy. Likewise, entomology studies the morphology, physiology, forms of interaction and others of insects, which correspond to two-thirds of the population of living beings on the planet.

Insects are one of the most numerous animals on record and they date back 400 million years, being very old in the world. At the moment, at least 2 million species are registered, adding to it those that remain to be registered, an estimated 5 million species of insects.


Etymologically the term horticulture comes from the Latin words hortus, which means plant, orchard or garden, and culture which translates as cultivation. Hence, it would then be translated as “plant cultivation” or “garden cultivation”. Horticulture is considered a science that incorporates fieldwork, technology and commercial activities, to obtain vegetables for consumption.

It should be noted that those who are dedicated to horticulture (horticulturists), must ensure the effectiveness of the harvests and the methods of fertilization of herbaceous plants, to achieve their multiplication.

Likewise, they must ensure their quality, their resistance to climatic phenomena and their nutritional composition. Similarly, they are concerned with creating mechanisms that favor the eradication of weeds, pests, and plant diseases.

Agricultural Extension

The concept of agricultural extension refers to the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through agricultural and livestock education. The field of extension today reaches a wide range composed of communications and learning activities organized for rural populations by professionals from different disciplines including agriculture, health and business and marketing studies.

The concept encompasses third world countries, but also developing and economically developed countries. Examples can be found in many cases related to government agencies, being represented by professional organizations, networks and the media.

Agricultural Economics

The agricultural (or agrarian) economy is a branch of the economy whose objective is the study of the agricultural sector, as well as its relations with the rest of the economic system.

Therefore, it is responsible for the study of that part of the primary sector that includes agriculture and livestock.

These two activities are linked to others such as fishing, hunting and even the food industry. All of them are one of the basic characteristics of the rural environment. Of course, they are interconnected, in turn, with the general economy.

Agricultural Engineering

It is the field of the profession or branch of engineering that applies science, technology and knowledge in agricultural activities or production and achieves the best conditions in all its aspects with agricultural productivity.

The purpose is to achieve the increase, efficiency and improvement in the social, economic, cultural, agronomic, ecological and environmental conditions in relation to agriculture.

The main areas or disciplines of knowledge are agriculture, botany, topography, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, ecology, biology, plant breeding, zootechnics and entomology.

Animal Husbandry

The diversity of species, mainly for food production, characterizes animal husbandry.

Animal husbandry, also known as livestock activity, refers to the practices related to raising livestock for purposes mainly for food consumption.

Today, the husbandry practice constitutes one of the main ones in the modern economic world, which generates considerable income to the nations where it is developed, due to the growing need of the population to obtain food.

It is considered as a primary activity since it basically supplies raw materials to the markets for the food industry since from cattle meat, other processed foods can be obtained with the use of modern technology and industrialized production.


It’s one of the activities of the primary sector of each nation, being the most important resource that man has for his subsistence; a portion of agricultural products is consumed directly and another is provided to the industry to obtain derived foods, textile, chemical or manufacturing materials.

Modern agriculture uses all the resources that science and technology provider; in the selection of seeds, use of chemical fertilizers and irrigation systems, protection of plants against parasites and pests, and thus progressing more and more in mechanization, which determines a continuous increase in the yield of the land.

In this brief guide, we are answered the question ‘’What are the 10 branches of agriculture?’’ We highlighted the main branches of agriculture, what each one studies and we will explain the importance of the role of agriculture in humanity.

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